mental health facts

Eating Disorders

Every day, we are surrounded by different messages from different sources that impact the way we feel about the way we look. For some, poor body image is a sign of a serious problem: an eating disorder. Eating disorders are not just about food. They are often a way to cope with difficult problems or regain a sense of control. They are complicated illnesses that affect a person’s sense of identity, worth, and self-esteem.

What are eating disorders?

There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.

The signs of an eating disorder often start before a person looks unwell, so weight should never be the only consideration.

Anorexia nervosa

A person who experiences anorexia nervosa may refuse to keep their weight at a normal weight for their body by restricting the amount of food they eat or exercising much more than usual. They may feel overweight regardless of their actual weight. They may think about their body weight often and use it to measure their self-worth.

Restricting food can affect a person’s entire body. Anorexia nervosa can cause heart and kidney problems, low blood iron, bone loss, digestive problems, low heart rate, low blood pressure, and fertility problems in women. As many as 10% of people who experience anorexia die as a result of health problems or suicide.

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa involves periods of uncontrollable binge-eating, followed by purging (eliminating food, such as by vomiting or using laxatives). People who experience bulimia nervosa may feel overweight regardless of their actual weight. They may think about their body weight often and use it to measure their self-worth.

Health problems caused by bulimia nervosa may include kidney problems, dehydration, and digestive problems. Vomiting often can damage a person’s teeth, mouth, and throat.

Binge-eating disorder

Binge-eating disorder involves periods of over-eating. People who experience binge-eating disorder may feel like they can’t control how much they eat, and feel distressed, depressed, or guilty after bingeing. Many people try to keep bingeing a secret. Binge-eating can be a way to cope or find comfort, and it can sometimes develop after dieting. Some people may fast (not eat for a period of time) or diet after periods of binge-eating.

Binge-eating disorder can increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or weight concerns.

Who does it affect?

Eating disorders can affect anyone, but some people may be at higher risk. People who experience lower self-esteem or poor body image, perfectionism, or difficulties dealing with stress may be more likely to experience an eating disorder. A lack of positive social supports and other important connections may also play a big part. In some cases, eating disorders can go along with other mental illnesses.

Our beliefs around body image are also important. While the media may often portray thinness as an ideal body type, this alone doesn’t cause an eating disorder. How we think about those messages and apply them to our lives is what affects our self-esteem and self-worth.

What can I do about it?

You may have a lot of difficult feelings around finding help—it isn’t always an easy step to take. Many people who experience an eating disorder are scared to go into treatment because they may believe that they will have to gain weight. Many also feel a lot of shame or guilt around their illness, so the thought of talking about very personal experiences can seem overwhelming. Some people find comfort in their eating behaviours and are scared to find new ways to cope. Restricting food, bingeing, and purging can lead to serious health problems, but eating disorders are treatable and you can recover. A good support team can help you through recovery and teach important skills that last a lifetime

Treatment for an eating disorder usually involves several different health professionals. Some people may need to spend time in hospital to treat physical health problems.

Counselling and support

Counselling helps people work through problems and develop skills to manage problems in the future. There are different types of counselling, including cognitive-behavioural therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, and interpersonal therapy. The entire family may take part in counselling, particularly when a young person experiences an eating disorder.

It can be very helpful to connect with support groups. They’re an opportunity to share experiences and recovery strategies, find support, and connect with people who understand what you’re experiencing. There may also be support groups for family and friends affected by a loved one’s eating disorder.

There are many self-help strategies to try at home. Skills like problem-solving, stress management, and relaxation techniques can help everyone cope with challenges or problems in a healthy way. You’ll find many different skills like these in counselling, but you can practice them on your own, too. And it’s always important to spend time on activities you enjoy and connect with loved ones.

A dietitian or nutritionist can teach eating strategies and eating habits that support your recovery goals. This is also called “nutritional counselling.”

Relapse prevention

A big part of recovery is learning to recognize relapse. A relapse is when symptoms come back. Seeking help as early as possible can do a lot to reduce problems or challenges. Relapse prevention plans—prepared when you’re well—often map out early warning signs, list treatment strategies that have worked in the past, and assign tasks to key people who can support you in your recovery. Your plan may be a formal arrangement with your care team or an informal plan with loved ones.

How can I help a loved?

When someone you love is diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder, you may wonder how you can really help. You can offer support in different ways: you can offer emotional support or practical support to help make the journey less daunting. You can also help a loved one watch for signs of relapse or other difficulties, which is an important part in maintaining wellness.

People who experience an episode of depression may have thoughts of ending their life. This is a sign that a loved one needs extra support. If you believe that a loved one is in danger, don’t hesitate to call 911 or your local crisis line.

Here are some tips for supporting someone you love:

  • Learn more about the illness and listen to your loved one so you have a better understanding of their experiences.
  • Someone who experiences an episode of depression may want to spend time alone or act out in frustration, and this can hurt other people’s feelings. These are just symptoms—it isn’t about you.
  • Ask your loved one how you can help. Think about practical help with day-to-day tasks, too.
  • Make sure your expectations are realistic. Recovery takes time and effort. It means a lot when you recognize your loved one’s work towards wellness, regardless of the outcome.
  • Make your own boundaries, and talk about behaviour you aren’t willing to deal with.
  • Seek support for yourself and think about joining a support group for loved ones. If family members are affected by a loved one’s illness, consider family counselling.

Do you need more help

Contact a community organization like the Canadian Mental Health Association to learn more about support and resources in your area.

Founded in 1918, The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) is a national charity that helps maintain and improve mental health for all Canadians. As the nation-wide leader and champion for mental health, CMHA helps people access the community resources they need to build resilience and support recovery from mental illness.